Superﬁcial thrombophlebitis (ST) is a relatively common inﬂammatory process associated with a blood clot (thrombus) that affects the superﬁcial veins (veins that are close to the surface of the body). Symptoms and signs include local pain, itching, tenderness, reddening of the skin, and hardening of the surrounding tissue.
Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a blood clot that usually forms in the deep vein system, mainly of the lower leg and which can block the venous return. The blood clot inside the vein can hold onto the vein wall, or it can be floating inside the vein.
DVT is caused by a combination of various pathophysiological factors, to including vein wall damage, stasis, and hypercoagulability. Risk factors for the development of DVT include, amongst others, pregnancy, contraceptive medication, cancer, surgery, injuries, CVI, and travel.
Some DVT cases have no recognized symptoms. For those who do show symptoms, they can include:
Complications of DVT include
When symptoms described above occur, the patient must see a doctor quickly to confirm the diagnosis which can be made with a simple ultrasound scan. Early diagnosis and treatment can greatly reduce your risk of serious complications.
Important to know: Treatment should eliminate the symptoms rapidly and durably, but also allow to stay mobile and pursue every day activities.
The symptoms of DVT can go unrecognized.
Pulmonary embolism occurs when a blood clot, or part of it (emboli), detaches itself and migrates to the lung arteries. Pulmonary embolism is one of the most serious consequences of DVT because it may be fatal. The signs of embolism are non-specific and can include difficult breathing, chest pain, cough, fever, or blood expectorations.
Because these symptoms are also common with other medical conditions, pulmonary embolism may not be recognized right away. Only specific tests will enable a correct diagnosis such as lung scan (computer tomography). In case of such symptoms, emergency medical assistance must be sought at once.
Treatment can include
Up to one half of patients with DVT develop a long-term complication known as post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS).
This condition can show up as chronic pain, swelling, heaviness, edema, and skin changes in the affected limb. In severe cases, venous ulcers may develop.
Treatment can include
Variceal bleeding is defined as bleeding from varicose veins. It is associated with a traumatized superficial varicosity, but significant bleeding can also happen from an area of ulceration. The resulting blood loss may be profound and even life threatening.